Home » 2023
Yearly Archives: 2023
Powur Reviews is a company that offers solar energy products and services. It is headquartered and has been around since 2014.
Its unique business model focuses on residential solar projects. It also uses high-quality, American-made products.
Powur’s compensation plan is similar to other MLM companies in that new affiliates share commissions on their first three solar installation projects with a mentor.
Unlike many other multi-level marketing companies that promote makeup, skincare products, or energy drinks, Powur offers something useful. This company collaborates with solar panel installers and is a middleman, referring customers to the best provider. This arrangement is less risky for the company, as it doesn’t have to produce its products and instead focuses on promoting the service. However, it does add to the overall cost of joining this network marketing company.
The company’s compensation plan is also a little different. Instead of a pyramid scheme, it offers overrides and a commission system that pays out when recruits generate sales. This is a great way to keep the number of people involved low and still make money from their work. However, it’s important to note that these incentives are only available for the top 10% of the organization.
Another thing to consider is the fact that the business is a relatively new one. It has been in operation for only a few years, and it needs to be clarified whether or not it can sustain itself. The company has been able to raise capital from investors, but how long these investments will last needs to be clarified. Moreover, whether this company can sell its product to consumers is still being determined.
In addition to a high price tag, it has some steep start-up costs. For example, you must pay a USD 99 membership fee to become an Advocate. Then, you’ll need to bring in three qualified leads to receive a payment. This may sound like much work, but it’s better than other networks like MyStand.
This is because the company focuses on providing high-quality, renewable energy that’s good for the environment. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean the company can afford to offer its services competitively. The company’s primary product is less popular than other MLM businesses. Most people already have solar panels, and those that don’t aren’t likely to switch to them. This makes it difficult to generate a sustainable income with Powur.
As a company that provides solar energy solutions, Power offers some benefits to its customers. For starters, the company’s installers provide a 10-year quality warranty. This warranty covers all installation work and materials. It is one of the most comprehensive warranties in the industry, and it can help ease the financial burden of installing solar panels on your home or business.
Another benefit of Powur is that its installers are certified by the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). This certification means you can be confident in the quality of their work. In addition, the NAHB’s certifications are valid for up to seven years. This will allow you to enjoy peace of mind while enjoying the savings of using solar Power.
Powur also offers a referral program. In this program, you will receive 10% of the project revenue if you refer someone who purchases a system. This is a great way to make extra money without spending too much time on the phone or in front of potential customers. However, it is important to remember that you will not earn a commission for any projects that are not sold.
While Powur does not sell its products, it does provide lead generation and network marketing services for other companies. The company is affiliated and partnered with 39 different solar providers, including Elon Musk’s SolarCity. Other partners include Baker Electric Solar, National Sun Energy, Alba Energy, ZeroCost Solar, and more.
Powur’s compensation plan is based on a unilevel system, and its affiliates can earn up to six levels of residual commission. If you recruit an affiliate, that affiliate’s level 1 will be your level 2. Then, their level 2 will become your level 3, and so on. If you have six levels of affiliates, then you will be earning a significant amount of money. However, it is important to note that you must recruit many people to generate this income. In addition, you must attend daily live group coaching and sales training to be successful in this business.
As a company, Powur is committed to providing superior customer service. Their dedicated customer support team can always answer questions and assist customers. Additionally, they offer a 10-year quality warranty and a 25-year equipment warranty to protect their customers in case of any issues.
However, some customers have reported problems with the company’s customer service. Some have complained about poor communication and inability to resolve installation issues. Others have reported difficulty in escalating issues to senior leadership. Despite these complaints, Powur has a good reputation in the solar industry.
Power is a multi-level marketing (MLM) company that sells and promotes solar energy products. It has a wide range of products that can be used in homes and businesses. The company has an extensive network of independent sales agents. These agents are responsible for selling and promoting the company’s products. They can earn a substantial amount of income from their efforts.
The company has a unique business model allows it to reach a large audience of potential customers. Its affiliates are paid on a commission basis and are given a percentage of each sale. These revenues are then redirected to the company’s general account. This allows the company to grow quickly and sustainably.
Another important factor that sets Powur apart from other solar companies is its financing options. While most other solar companies offer leases and PPAs, Powur only provides loans. This makes it easier for homeowners to get started with solar Power.
In addition to its financing options, Powur also offers maintenance services. This includes cleaning and inspection of the panels to maximize efficiency. In addition, the company will replace any parts that may become defective. This is a great way to save money on your energy bills and protect the environment.
Power is an excellent choice for anyone interested in switching to solar energy. Its innovative business model, high-quality products, and dedication to customer satisfaction have made it a leader in the solar industry. Its unique approach to promoting solar adoption and its commitment to American-made products make it an ideal choice for anyone looking to switch to green energy.
Power is a network marketing company that promotes using solar energy systems for residential homes. Its products are designed to reduce the need for fossil fuels and help homeowners save money on their electric bills. The company also offers rebates and tax credits for its customers. Its compensation structure includes a revenue share plan that rewards consultants with commissions for every solar installation.
The installation process of a power system is straightforward and quick. Homeowners begin by meeting with one of the company’s solar consultants to discuss their energy needs and determine how much they can save by switching to solar. After a site visit, the consultant will create a customized proposal for the homeowner. The proposal will include a quote for the system’s cost and an estimate for savings. The homeowner can choose the package that best suits their needs and budget.
After the home is inspected, a team will prepare and install the new solar system. Once the system is installed, a technician will check the system to ensure everything is in working order. The technician will also set up the net meter. After a successful installation, homeowners will receive their customer closeout packet.
Although the Power solar panel installation process is relatively simple, customers have reported some issues. For example, some have cited difficulties with the sales process and problems with the quality of the products used in their installations. In addition, some have complained of needing more communication from Powur’s senior management. Other problems have been reported regarding scheduling and the difficulty of escalating issues to higher levels.
While many other MLM companies focus on makeup or skincare, Powur focuses on solar panel installation. This is a unique approach that may appeal to people who are interested in a greener lifestyle. Solar Edge, a top-notch solar equipment manufacturer, manufactures the company’s products. In addition, it collaborates with other leading solar companies, such as Tesla and SolarCity, to provide consumers with high-quality products.
When shopping for a mattress, it is important to separate value from expense. Using the internet to collect information at your own pace allows you to compare models and spot good values.
There are many factors to consider when selecting a mattress, including its firmness, materials, temperature regulation, and more. Clicking here at https://www.boxdropmattressselah.com/ will help you make the right choice for your needs.
Firmness is an important feature to consider when shopping for a mattress. It determines the overall feel of the bed and can influence how well it provides support for pressure points like the hips and shoulders. The ideal firmness level will depend on your preferences and sleep position, as well as your size and whether or not you share the bed with a partner.
Mattress firmness isn’t a universally accepted standard, and different manufacturers use their methods to describe firmness. However, most mattresses are rated on a 10-point scale, with softer models falling on the lower end of the spectrum and firmer surfaces on the higher end. The materials used to make the mattress largely determine its firmness. For example, a layer of memory foam or latex will provide a softer feel, while thinner layers of less pliable material contribute to a firmer surface.
There is no one-size-fits-all firmness level that will suit everyone, but many people find that a medium to medium-soft mattress is the most comfortable. This can help relieve pressure on the hips and shoulders while providing sufficient cushioning to prevent spinal misalignment. If you have back pain, a firmer mattress may be more suitable as it will provide adequate support and reduce the pressure on your joints.
To test for a mattress’s firmness, try laying on it and sliding your hand beneath the small curve in the middle of your back. If the mattress is too soft, it will slip easily and won’t support your spine correctly. Similarly, if the mattress is too hard, it will be unyielding and not provide enough support for your body weight. This could lead to back and neck pain, so it’s important to test the firmness of a mattress before purchasing.
The specific materials a mattress is made from can significantly affect its comfort, durability, and price. Foams, metal coils, or latex are often used for support cores while cotton, polyfoam, memory foam, and wool provide cushioning close to the surface of the mattress.
In addition to these primary components, a mattress may include various add-ons that enhance its performance or suit the sleeper’s preferences. For example, some mattresses have cooling technologies like phase change materials (PCMs) that are designed to keep the bed cool to the touch by absorbing and releasing heat slowly. Others use graphite or copper to conduct heat away from the sleeping surface. These technologies are a good choice for those who want their mattress to stay cool all night, but they’re more expensive and require maintenance.
Other materials found in mattresses include batting, polyester, and wool for added insulation or temperature regulation. The batting is usually made from either cotton or polyester/cotton blends. It can also be made from a synthetic fiber called rayon, which is extracted from wood pulp and liquefied to form filaments that are then spun into threads.
Foam can be a mainstay in many mattresses, but it’s important to consider its quality and origin. Look for polyfoam that is certified – this product avoids the use of harsh chemicals in its production and meets strict safety standards. Also, look for low-density foam that doesn’t feel bouncy and uses fewer polymers to maintain its shape.
There are a lot of things to keep in mind when selecting the right mattress. Your sleep position and personal preferences for feel and materials will play a role, but there are also cost, convenience, and durability to consider. Many people are also looking to buy eco-friendly mattresses, which are made with organic cotton and wool, recycled steel for the coils, and natural latex or synthetic latex. These are typically certified as GREENGUARD GOLD or Global Organic Textile Standard (GOTS) and are the best option for those concerned about toxins and environmental impact.
When shopping for a new mattress, look for retailers that offer a free trial period and free shipping and returns. This will allow you to see if a mattress feels good and suits your needs over a longer period. It is also important to understand a mattress’s warranty, which covers defects from the manufacturer over a long period. This is different than a trial period, which may cover damage from excessive use like indentations and sagging and is generally only offered for a limited number of years after purchase. A reputable brand will have a clear return policy that will help you avoid any confusion.
Many people with mobility issues require mattresses that work well with their existing wheelchairs or scooters. This means the mattress has to be at a height that works well with the device. It also needs to be easy to move around on. If you’re not sure whether a mattress is suitable, you can test it by rolling over and sitting up several times during the night. If you find that these actions are difficult or uncomfortable, it’s probably not the right mattress for you.
If you want to purchase an adjustable bed, some companies have a variety of models that are ideal for wheelchairs and other mobility aids. These adjustable beds include a high-quality base plus and white glove delivery, so you don’t have to worry about assembly or finding someone to do it for you.
A mattress can become a breeding ground for mold, mildew, dust mites, and other microscopic organisms that trigger allergies, contribute to a shortened mattress lifespan, and affect your health in numerous ways. An antimicrobial mattress prevents their proliferation and makes for a healthier sleeping surface.
An organic mattress meets defined standards for natural production, with components like Joma wool for fire barriers and GOTS-certified organic cotton or wool batting. Those made with a support core featuring recycled steel are also eco-friendly. Some hybrid models use GOTS-certified organic Dunlop latex, which cradles heavier parts of the body to relieve pressure buildup, while others have a zoned pocketed coil system where thinner coils bolster lighter areas for a more even distribution of weight.
Look for mattresses with natural latex foam instead of polyurethane, since this material is renewable and emits fewer VOCs. Some offer a layer of copper infused with natural antimicrobial properties that inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms and prolong mattress life.
When a plumbing emergency happens, you need to know who to call. Researching plumbers online before an emergency can help you find a professional who won’t charge you more than they should for their services. For professional help, contact Plumber Linden NJ now!
Water stains, leaky pipes, and overflowing toilets are emergencies that need to be dealt with quickly. This will prevent damage to your home and also prevent health issues from arising.
If you have a serious plumbing issue that cannot wait until normal business hours, call an emergency plumber right away. This will ensure that the problem is fixed quickly and correctly, helping to prevent further damage to your home and costly repairs. Before you hire an emergency plumber, however, take the time to research your options and choose a qualified professional. You can do this by asking for referrals from friends and family, searching online reviews, and comparing pricing. By taking the time to vet your plumber upfront, you can feel confident that they will do a good job and charge fair rates.
Leaking pipes are one of the most common reasons to call an emergency plumber. Water leaks can cause extensive damage in a short amount of time and lead to mold, mildew, and other problems. Additionally, leaking water can also cause electrical issues if it comes into contact with electrical wires. In some cases, a simple fix like a pipe repair is all that’s needed, but other times, it may be necessary to replace a part or even your entire water line.
Another reason to call an emergency plumber is if your water is discolored. This could indicate a major problem with your water system, such as a broken line or a clogged water heater. Water that is discolored may also have a funky odor or taste. An emergency plumber can diagnose the problem and determine whether or not your water is safe to drink.
A clogged drain is another common emergency plumbing problem. This is usually caused by a buildup of hair, soap scum, or other debris. A clogged drain can cause the toilet to overflow, which is a health hazard and needs to be addressed immediately. It’s also important to note that if more than one drain is clogged, it’s likely a bigger issue, such as a sewer backup, that needs to be resolved right away.
A gas leak is a serious emergency that requires immediate attention. Not only does it pose a fire hazard, but it can also lead to carbon monoxide poisoning if the CO2 builds up in your home. If you think you have a gas leak, turn off your main water supply and find the shut-off valve for your home’s gas line. Then, call a local emergency plumber to fix the leak as soon as possible.
Water heater repairs
Water heaters are a staple in most homes, but that doesn’t mean they’re immune to failure. Over time, sediment can build up inside the tank, anode rods can wear down, pilot lights can go out, and electrical wires can loosen or fray.
If you experience any of these problems, it’s a good idea to call a plumber right away. A plumber will be able to assess the situation and come up with a plan for repairs. Before calling, be sure to ask about the cost of the service call and any potential parts costs. Many plumbers charge a flat fee to come out during off-hours, and this can add up quickly.
Sometimes, a lack of hot water is simply because the water heater’s capacity has been exceeded. This can happen if multiple people in the house are showering at once or if you use your dishwasher and washing machine on warm settings. In this case, you’ll need to invest in a larger water heater.
Other times, a lack of hot water may be caused by an overheated pilot light. If you’ve tried reigniting the pilot light but it continues to go out, you may need to replace the thermocouple or gas valve. This is a job for a professional, but it’s not usually considered an emergency.
If there is a gas leak, you’ll need to evacuate your home and call 911 or the fire department immediately. A plumber will be able to fix the leak once it’s safe to return, but they’ll also need to check for other issues like a worn-out dip tube or broken pressure relief valve.
If your water heater is leaking, it’s important to turn off the water supply valve as soon as possible. This will stop any additional water from flowing into your home and will help prevent a catastrophic water disaster. After you’ve shut off the water supply, you can call a plumber to inspect your water heater for further damage. They’ll be able to determine if the leak is serious and needs to be fixed immediately.
Clogged toilet repairs
If a plunger does not fix your clogged toilet, it is time to call in the pros. This is because a clogged toilet can lead to serious water and sewer line problems in your home. You could end up with wastewater flooding your basement, foundation, or yard if the problem is not fixed quickly.
One of the most common reasons for a clogged toilet is the use of flushable wipes. These products claim to be biodegradable, but they often do not break down properly and can block your drains and toilet.
Another common reason for a clogged toilet is that something was flushed down the drain by accident. This may be a toy, an electronic device, or even a sanitary product like a diaper or soiled tampon. Trying to remove these objects on your own can cause permanent damage to your pipes, so it is always best to call in the pros.
Plumbers can use a special tool called a toilet snake or auger to remove the blockage and restore normal toilet function. This tool can also be used to clean out your entire plumbing system, which can prevent future clogs and improve overall drain and sewer line performance.
Many clogs can be prevented by keeping bathroom counters clear and not putting anything down the drain that isn’t supposed to be there. If you do accidentally drop an object down the drain, try to retrieve it right away before it has a chance to go down the drain and become a serious clog.
If basic clog removal methods don’t work, you should call in the professionals to help you unclog your toilet. This way, they can remove the clog safely and ensure that no further damage is done to your plumbing system.
Another thing that can be done to help prevent clogs is to invest in a drain cleaner, such as BioBen, which claims to break down hair and other organic material while also cleaning your pipes. This will help keep your drains flowing smoothly and can save you money in the long run by preventing costly repairs down the road.
Leaky pipe repairs
If you notice a dripping sound or see puddles in the area of your home where a pipe is located, it’s important to call a plumber right away. The longer you wait, the more water damage your home may endure. The good news is that you can take some simple steps to minimize the damage until a professional arrives.
First, find the main shutoff valve for your house, which is typically in an easily accessible place like your garage or basement. Then, turn it off by turning it counterclockwise. Once the water is turned off, you can start working on the leak.
Some of the most common methods for repairing a leaky pipe involve using tape or epoxy putty. Both are effective and relatively inexpensive, but it’s important to remember that a temporary fix is all they’re meant to be. The bad news is that a leaking pipe will continue to cause damage until it’s replaced or repaired permanently.
Another option for a more permanent solution to a leaky pipe is a rubber patch with a clamp. These kits come with everything you need for the repair and are typically easy to install. According to SealXpert Products, the most durable option for a leaky pipe is a c-clamp-type patch with a hose clamp that you can cut to size and then secure tightly around the leaky section of your pipe.
Finally, a fiberglass wrap can also be used to temporarily stop a leak in a pipe. It works by adhering to the surface of your pipe and expanding with its own resin to create a strong, waterproof seal. The instructions for each product will explain how to use it, but most can be installed in less than 30 minutes without the need for any formal training.
If you’re able to stop the flow of water in your leaking pipe with one of these solutions, it’s important to note that the leak will likely start occurring in other places as well. It’s recommended to keep a few of these emergency supplies on hand in case you need a quick solution, but it’s best to have a professional replace the pipe as soon as possible.
When your air conditioner isn’t working properly, it may be time to call for Air Conditioning Repair Van Nuys. Keeping your AC unit well-maintained can extend its life expectancy and improve performance.
Before calling for an AC repair, check to ensure the unit is powered up and has power at the thermostat and disconnect switch. Also, inspect the electrical conduits for rodent activity and reseal any open areas.
The evaporator coil is responsible for cooling the air in your home, but it needs a clean surface to work effectively. Over time, the coil can become covered with dirt and debris, which reduces its ability to absorb heat. If this is not removed regularly, you can expect to see problems with your system.
The coil can collect a lot of debris, including grass clippings, sand, pet hair, tobacco smoke, and rust. In addition, it can become infested with mildew and mold. These can create foul odors that are circulated throughout the house. They can also cause the air conditioner to turn on and off repeatedly, which is very expensive for your utility bills.
Dirty evaporator coils can cause a number of other issues with your AC unit. As the coil becomes dirty, it loses its ability to absorb heat, which cuts down on overall energy efficiency. This can lead to a rise in your utility bills and cause the system to run longer to reach the desired temperature. When the evaporator coil is too dirty, it can also prevent the thermostat from properly sensing when the room has reached the desired temperature and signaling the system to stop.
Your evaporator coil can also become damaged when it’s exposed to extreme temperatures. If the coil is exposed to excessive temperatures, it may degrade or even melt. This can cause severe damage to the air conditioning unit and require an expensive repair or replacement.
If you’re concerned about your evaporator coil becoming too dirty, consider using an air conditioner maintenance service that will clean the coil each month. These services usually include a check of the air filter as well as the evaporator and condenser coils.
Getting the evaporator coil clean is easy enough, but it’s important to make sure that the power to your air conditioning unit is off before you attempt any work. It’s also helpful to have an air conditioner expert show you where the coil is located and how to access it safely. You can use a soft brush to remove light amounts of dirt, but it’s best to have a professional perform any deep cleaning.
A refrigerant leak is a big deal and one that should be dealt with quickly. Refrigerant is a chemical substance that helps your AC unit perform cooling functions, and when there’s a leak, it’ll need to work harder to cool the air. This can drive up your energy bills. The best way to find a refrigerant leak is with either a special sniffer or by performing a simple soap bubble test on your evaporator coil. A bubble will form if the refrigerant is present, and it’s easy to see where the leak is located from there.
Leaks can also cause serious damage to your system if not handled promptly. They will eventually deplete the compressor of its oil, leading to a major repair that’s usually very expensive. In addition to this, a refrigerant leak will create hazardous fumes. Inhaling these can lead to dizziness, loss of coordination and concentration, and skin rashes. The worst-case scenario is that you could suffer from seizures and even lose consciousness if the leak is severe enough.
Another sign of a refrigerant leak is if you notice puddles on the ground near your unit. These puddles are usually caused by condensation that melts on the evaporator coil and drops to the floor. Larger leaks will produce a hissing sound as they escape.
You’ll want to call a professional air conditioning repair company as soon as you suspect you have a refrigerant leak. Some companies may try to cut corners by simply charging your air conditioner for a refill of refrigerant, but this is a dangerous solution. Refrigerant is escalating in price, and if you have to keep recharging, it will likely lead to the depletion of the compressor’s oil and result in an even more costly repair or replacement.
Additionally, working on your own AC system can void the warranty and possibly lead to more damage and serious consequences than just a refrigerant leak. It’s always wise to leave these tasks to professionals who have been certified by the industry. This will ensure that any future issues are properly diagnosed and repaired.
Dirty Condenser Fan
You may have heard the expression “dirt is cheap.” However, when it comes to your air conditioning unit’s condenser coils and fan, it’s a different story. Dirty coils prevent your AC from rejecting heat from the house, which in turn reduces cooling capacity. The condenser is filled with refrigerant, which takes excess heat and sends it outdoors to lower the indoor temperature. A dirty condenser coil keeps heat from escaping, forcing your AC to run longer and increasing energy bills.
In addition, a dirty condenser coil can damage the fan motor by overworking it. It can also attract colonies of bacteria and fungi, which can then release harmful spores into your home’s indoor air supply.
To prevent a dirty coil, regularly clean the outdoor unit’s fan blades and the surrounding area. Keep bushes and other plants at least three feet away from the unit, and make sure there’s plenty of room for airflow around the coil. Also, schedule regular maintenance with an air conditioning service company to ensure that your coils are free of dirt and other debris.
Your air conditioner has two coils: an evaporator coil and a condenser coil. While you can try to clean the evaporator coil yourself, it’s best to leave cleaning the condenser coil to an experienced professional. The professional can inspect your unit and make sure the fan, condenser coil, and surrounding areas are free of obstructions that could affect its performance.
If you suspect that your air conditioner’s condenser coil is dirty, shut off the circuit breaker and furnace switch, then remove the cover and disconnect the wires leading to the capacitor. Take a photo of the capacitor to note its size, make, and model (or just jot down the serial number). Purchase a replacement capacitor with similar specs from an appliance store or a furnace dealer. During installation, use needle-nose pliers to gently pull one wire at a time from the old capacitor and snap it onto the corresponding tab on the new one.
The capacitor stores electricity and releases it during compressor and fan startup to give them an extra jolt of power and smooth out voltage fluctuations that can otherwise cause electrical damage. When you replace the capacitor, remember to ground it by connecting its negative terminal to the metal case on the air conditioner’s chassis.
A thermostat has one simple job: to open and close the flow of coolant between an engine and radiator. But if this vital component goes bad, the consequences can be serious. Fortunately, there are a few telltale signs that you need to get your thermostat replaced as soon as possible.
A thermostat that erratically switches from hot to cold is the most common sign of a problem. This means the unit is not responding to the temperature setting and will switch back and forth, often with extreme changes in temperature. It can also indicate a problem with the thermostat wiring.
Another indicator of a bad thermostat is when the display reads a different temperature than what it feels like in the room. While minor fluctuations are normal, a big difference could mean the thermostat is not correctly calibrated or the wiring is damaged. A professional technician should check the wiring for damage and calibration.
If your HVAC system is running constantly, it may be because the thermostat has stopped sending signals to turn it off. This can cause the system to run indefinitely and lead to a spike in energy costs. A professional technician will look at the thermostat as well as the system’s electrical panel to figure out what’s causing it to stay on.
When a vehicle’s thermostat is stuck in the closed position, it can prevent coolant from flowing through the radiator and even cause the engine to overheat. This is a clear indication that it’s time to replace the thermostat and top off the engine’s coolant reservoir.
The thermostat should be easy to find, usually located near the upper radiator hose. It should be fastened with two or three 10 mm or 12 mm bolts and be easily removed. Once the bolts are free, it’s a good idea to use a plastic scraper to clean off any rust or corrosion from the mounting surface. This will help ensure that the new thermostat is seated properly and doesn’t leak.
Most contaminants in drinking water have no taste or odor and must be tested professionally to identify them. This includes chemicals like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, toluene, and methyl tertiary butyl ether. To learn more, visit Water Quality Testing Near Me.
Testing is essential for homeowners who use private wells or cisterns. It’s also helpful for urban areas prone to contamination from outdated municipal plumbing, nearby fracking and mining activities, or livestock farming.
What is Water Testing?
There are a wide variety of water tests that can be used to measure different aspects of water quality. Some of these tests are designed to identify specific contaminants or problems while others test for more general parameters. Some are measured in concentration units, such as milligrams per liter (mg/L), which is equivalent to parts per million (ppm). Other measurements use index numbers that are not directly related to concentration, such as pH.
Water quality testing is a critical process to ensure safe drinking water. Whether a water supply is municipal or private, it must be regularly tested to ensure that the chemical, physical, and biological properties are within acceptable limits. This helps ensure that people drink healthfully, businesses operate without impediments caused by off-spec water and the natural environment thrives unhindered by harmful pollutants.
Some of the more common water quality parameters include turbidity, hardness and conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids (TDS). Turbidity is a measurement of the amount of particulate material in the water that makes it cloudy or murky. This material can hide waterborne microorganisms, shield them from disinfection processes and absorb heavy metals. High turbidity can also lead to the presence of unpleasant odors or tastes.
Hardness is a measurement of the concentration of dissolved minerals in the water. Excessively high levels can cause mineral buildup in hot water pipes, a dry feeling to the skin and a metallic taste. High hardness can also interfere with the ability to produce a lather with soap.
Most of the contaminates that can affect water quality are not visible to the naked eye, so they need to be tested for with lab equipment or at-home kits. The lab testing method is more accurate but takes longer to complete than home tests.
Conductivity measures the ability of water to transmit an electrical current. It is a non-selective measurement, meaning that it does not differentiate between different concentrations of ionic chemicals in solution. However, it is easy to read with a conductivity meter and provides information about the total number of ions present in the sample. Increasing conductivity levels in lakes and rivers can indicate pollutants. For example, a sewage leak increases the conductivity level because of the addition of chloride, phosphate and nitrate ions, whereas an oil spill decreases it because these elements do not break down into ions 1.
Conductive measurements can also be used to detect changes in dissolved oxygen levels, as high levels of soluble salts typically lower oxygen levels. In addition, temperature and salinity influence the conductivity of water. Using an NDSU water quality monitor, you can quickly measure the total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductivity of a water sample.
Water with a higher specific conductance will have more ions per volume than less conductive water. The specific conductance of a water is the ratio of conductivity to its molar mass, or molecular weight. The molar mass of pure water is 1 g/cm3.
During a flooding event, conductivity tends to increase due to the influx of nutrient and mineral-rich soil from floodplains. In addition, salt ions that were previously dry in the soil can enter solution as the water enters and increase the conductivity of the floodwaters.
Conductivity readings are often reported at a specific temperature to normalize the results. The specific conductance of a water at 25 deg C is the standard reporting value. This allows data from different locations to be easily compared.
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
When water falls on rocks, soil or grass it dissolves some of the minerals and salts contained in those materials. This process, known as leaching, is a natural one. These dissolved solids are called total dissolved solids or TDS.
All types of water contain some TDS, but some sources have higher levels than others. For example, groundwater typically has higher TDS than surface water from rivers or lakes. Bottled mineral water also tends to have high TDS levels.
TDS is measured in milligrams per liter (mg/L) or parts per million (ppm). Generally, a TDS measurement of less than 500 ppm is safe for drinking. A TDS reading of 1,000 ppm or more, however, is likely to indicate the presence of harmful contaminants.
Most people don’t need to measure TDS in their homes, but for those who do, there are a few different ways to do it. One way is to use a lab test, which can be expensive and inconvenient. A better option is to use a TDS meter, which can be purchased for between $10 and $100 depending on the device and manufacturer.
Keeping track of TDS is most useful for those who are struggling with hard water or other water quality issues. For instance, if you are using a water softener to address hardness issues, measuring TDS can help keep track of your progress and help make sure the hard water has been completely eliminated from your water supply. Those with a hot tub or swimming pool may also find it helpful to measure TDS to make sure the water is pure enough for their purposes. This is especially important if they are using metal pipes that may leach some unwanted substances into the water.
Biological pathogens (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or parasites) can be found in drinking water. Often, the source of these pathogens is fecal contamination from animals that have contaminated the environment with their wastes. As a result, the presence of fecal contamination in drinking water can lead to illness or disease outbreaks. However, it is not practical to test for all the possible pathogens in every sample of drinking water taken by a water system. Instead, many systems use “indicator organisms” like coliform bacteria to check for the presence of pathogens in their water samples.
Coliforms are bacteria that are naturally present in the digestive tracts of animals, in animal wastes, and in plant and soil material. They are not harmful in themselves, but they can be a pathway through which more dangerous pathogens can enter drinking water. Testing for the presence of coliforms is therefore an important part of a water system’s effort to produce safe and clean drinking water.
A good treatment system will remove most if not all coliforms from the water it produces at the treatment plant. Therefore, the recommended sampling frequency for coliforms at treatment plants is typically based on the size of the population that the water system serves.
When the coliform levels in a water supply sample are above the minimum acceptable level at a point in the distribution system, then additional actions may be required. These could include warning residents to boil their drinking water before consumption, as well as investigating the source of the contamination and implementing corrective actions.
Storage temperature can have a major impact on the results of coliform tests, so it is critical that samples be stored and transported at the proper temperatures (e.g., below room temperature). Commercial devices are available to verify that a sample is at the appropriate storage and transport temperatures during collection and transit to the laboratory.
Other Germs or Harmful Chemicals
The quality of drinking water can be seriously compromised by the presence of pathogenic (disease-causing) bacteria, viruses and parasites. Drinking water contaminated with these organisms can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea and other unpleasant symptoms. In the most severe cases, these pathogens can lead to disease and even death.
Microbial contamination contributes heavily to the global burden of human disease and is particularly dangerous for infants, young children and people with compromised immune systems. In fact, contaminated water causes up to 143,000 deaths every year from cholera and other diarrheal diseases such as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis A.
Bacteria and other organisms that are normally found in the environment can also be introduced into water sources by human or animal activities. This may be the case when sewage or manure from homes, farms and businesses is spilled, leaked or disposed of improperly. In addition, some types of pesticides and solvents can be a source of contamination.
Most of the drinking water in the United States comes from community water systems, which must meet EPA standards. However, about 15 million Americans get their water from private wells. Well owners are responsible for testing their own drinking water and maintaining their wells.
Some of the most common tests are for fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli). A positive test result indicates the presence of these harmful bacteria in your drinking water.
Other tests include dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The specific chemicals you should test for will depend on where your well is located on your property, which state you live in, and the environmental conditions where you live. For example, industrial and fuel-related contaminants such as cadmium, arsenic, lead, benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) may be of particular concern in urban areas.